Godfather of Chemistry
|Jabir ibn Hayyan|
or Jiber Ebni Hayin al-Báriqi al-Azdi (Born in 721 in Tus in Iran. Died in 815 in Kufa in Iraq).
He called, Abo Mosa Jaber ebn Hayyin El-Azdi, was the first Arabic Muslim alchemist, from the tribe al-Báriqi al-Azdi (born in the Persian province of Khorasan).
In France, He name was in the Latin form: Geber. He is considered the chemistry godfather and for being the first one to practice alchemy scientifically.
He was born around 721 in Tus, in the Khorasan province. As a young man, Jabir was sent to the city of Baghdad to study the Koran and mathematics.
He then became a disciple of the famous sixth Shiite Imam, Jafar as-Sadiq. He spend his most great life in Kofa or “KUFA”, in Iraq.
|The first essential in chemistry|
“”The main fundamental issue in chemistry you have to do applied work and experience, according to him, who does not do applied work and experience will never reach the highest levels of knowledge.” He made a great achievements in both theoretical and practicing chemical experiments.
His books markedly influenced alchemists allover the world specially European and developed their quest for “Philosopher’s stone”, Lapis Philosophicus.
He is the father of a large number of chemical laboratory discoveries, such as different kinds of equipment and now common methods and discovery of chemicals, such as hydrochloric acid and nitric acid.
He is also responsible for crystallization and distillation, which became the foundations of chemical engineering and modern chemistry.
|Jabir Ibn Hayyan|
he wrote about one hundred books on many subjects, including 22 concerning alchemy.
Firmly built on experimental observations, his books give a systematization of essential chemical processes used by alchemists like distillation, crystallization, sublimation, calcination and evaporation. They, therefore, represent a big step in transformation of the chemistry from occult art into a scientific correction.
Jabir guesses that finite mass of many substances are implemented during chemical reactions, a millennium ahead of modern chemistry principles including the definite proportions law that discovered by Joseph Proust in 1794.
thanks to Jabir, a lot of development and invention of several pieces laboratory equipment still in use today, like the still, which allows one to perform distillations more safely, more easily, and more efficiently.
|Jabir discovered hydrochloric|
Beyond its applications for the purification and extraction of gold, this invention was both happiness and despair for the following millennium of alchemists.
Thanks to his intelligent, He discovered citric acid (at the base of the acidity of the lemon), Also from wine-making residues “tartaric acid”, from vinegar “acetic acid”.
He used his knowledge to improve alot of manufacturing processes, including the manufacturing of steel Alos various metals, prevention of rusting, gilding, dyeing clothes, tanning leather, and pigment analysis.
He added a lot of development for usage of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in the manufacturing of glass to compensate for green hues form iron production, imagine that we use them today.
He noticed that the boiling process of wine produces type of flammable vapor, making the way become easy for the discovery of the ethanol by Al-Razi.
|the classification of modern elements|
He proposed to separate the substances into three sections:
“Spirits,” which vaporize under the effect of heat such as, ammonium chloride, arsenic, and camphor.
“metals” such as iron, lead, copper, and gold.
“blocks” that we can convert into the form of powder.
During the great Middle Ages, European alchemists translated Jabir’s books and theories of chemistry and used them as a standard texts.
like “Kitab al-Kimya” book (” Alchemy Composition Book” in Europe).
By Robert Chester translation in 1144, Also wrote Kitab ul-Sabeen (“The 70 books”) , Gerard Cremona translation.
some of his books translated by Berthelot known as the “Book of the Kingdom,” “The Book of Balance,” and “Book of Eastern Mercury.” Some technical terms introduced by Jabir were used in European languages and became common words of scientific vocabulary, such as alkali (alkaline).
Alchemist Jabir became the court of the Caliph Haroun al-Rashid. His interest in alchemy was inspired by his master Jaafar al-Sadiq, who was a very learned man and one of the highest authorities in the field of esoteric sciences. Jabir himself was nicknamed “Al-Sufi,” indicating that it belonged to a mystical and ascetic branch of Islam. He wrote the Kitab al-Zahra (“Book of Venus,” the Noble art of alchemy) to Haroun al-Rashid. He wrote in his “Book of Stones” that “the goal is to unseat and mislead all but those loved by God and that he intended to know.” His work was deliberately written using an esoteric code so that only those who been have trained in the school of alchemy can understand them.
It is very difficult for the modern reader to discern which aspects of his writings are to be understood as symbols (and to unravel the meaning) and which can be understood literally.
The purpose of the alchemical work of Jabir concerned the artificial creation of life.
His research is based on a theory developing numerology related to Pythagorean and Neoplatonic systems.
The nature and properties of the elements defined by the numbers assigned are based on Arab consonants present in their names.
Jabir added four properties to the physics of Aristotle: hot, cold, dry, and wet.
Each element of the physics of Aristotle was characterized by these properties: Fire was hot and dry, water was cold and wet. Earth was cold and dry, and air was warm and moist.
In metals, two of these properties were inner and two of them were outer.
For example, lead was cold and dry, and gold was warm and moist.
According to Jabir’s theory, it should be possible, by rearranging the properties of a metal, to create a new one.
This theory was behind the search for al-sir, the elusive elixir that would have made this transformation possible, the equivalent of the philosopher’s stone in European alchemy.
The work of Jabir also covers medicine and astronomy. Unfortunately, only a small number of his books have been edited and published, and few are still available for translation.
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