A Scientist with many talent “Abu al-Reḥān”
Al-Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Afzal Abu al-Reḥān (born September 3,4, 155 or 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – city of modern Uzbekistan, who died on December 13 to 10 523 or 10 484.5 in Ghazni).
He was a Khorezmian scholar.
Astronomer, mathematician, physicist, encyclopedistn, astrologer,philosopher, traveler, historian, pharmacologist, and tutor, he contributed much to the fields of philosophy, medicine, mathematics and science.
He is known to have studied the theory of the rotation of the Earth around its axis and its revolution around the sun.
He was born in a suburb of Kath at Khwarazm, now in Uzbekistan, near the current Urgench. His name comes from run in Persian: outside, suburb (Kath).
His village was renamed Biruni after him. Abu Nasr Mansur taught him astronomy and mathematics.
He was a physician and philosopher, Avicenna colleague and philosopher, historian, and ethicist, as well as a Miskawayh in a university and an institution of science founded by Prince Abu Abbas Ma’mun Khawarazmshah. He was part of the group of Mahmud of Ghazni during his campaigns in India.
He learned Sanskrit, Hindi, and several dialects and was initiated into the history, philosophy, religion and and customs of this subcontinent. He drew material from a History of India (Kitab fi Tariq my like-Hind), very subtly. Abu al-Reḥān also knew Greek, and probably Syriac. He wrote in Persian and Arabic.
At the age of seventeen, he manage to calculate the latitude of Kath at Khwarazm by the use of the sun maximum altitude.
|latitude of Kath at Khwarazm|
At 22, he wrote many works about Cartography “study of map projections” which includes a methodology for projecting a hemisphere onto a plane.
At 27, he wrote a great book called Timeline, which refers to another work he completed (now lost) that included several books contained an amazing book for decimal system, one about the astrolabe, two about history, and four about astrology.
He mentioned the attractive force that the Earth exerts on the body.
He managed to calculate the Earth’s radius at 6 339.6 km (Europe used this result later in the sixteenth century).
He was interested in the theory (called Copernican theory) on the rotation of the Earth around its axis and around the sun, in the year one thousand.
According to Sigrid Hunke, he conceived this theory, after Aristarchus of Samos (-300) and the Chaldean Seleucus of Babylon (-200).
According to Ahmed Djebbar, he studied in three of his books the following:
The many works of Al-Biruni also fall within the mathematical field any many other disciplines. Here is a selection of these contributions. His mathematics contributions concerned the following areas:
-the practical and theoretical arithmetic
-the rule of three
-the study of irrational numbers highlighted by the Greeks
-a method for solving algebraic equations
-the trisection of the angle and approached impossibility
In other areas, his works include:
-Study of ideas in India; they are consistent with reason or rejected by that CI – compendium of philosophy and religion of India. (Also called Book of India.)
-Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Abu Rayhan, the Book of India, excerpts, trans. Arabic presented and annotated by Vincent Arles, Monteil, Sindbad-Actes Sud / UNESCO, 1996, 365p.
-The remaining signs of the past 9 centuries – a comparative Changes study of cultures around history, mingled with mathematical information, historical and astronomical. (Also called Timeline.)
-The gun Mas’udi10 – book on geography, engineering and astronomy, in honor of Masud, Mahmud of Ghazni’s son, to whom it is dedicated.
-Understanding astrologie11 – Questions about astronomy and mathematics, Persian and Arabic.
-Pharmacology (about medicines and drugs).
-Gemmes12,13 about minerals, geology and gems, dedicated to Maw did, son of Maud
-A historical summary of the book: The chronology of ancient nations (Al-Athar al-bāqiyah)
-A story Mahmoud of Ghazni and his father